As a Baby Boomer (born in 1946), I was around in person when Popular Music on the radio first made the earth-shaking move from the crooning ballads of the likes of Eddie Fisher and his Number One 1953 hit Oh! My Pa-Pa …
Oh, my Papa, to me he was so wonderful,
Oh, my Papa, to me he was so good.
No one could be so gentle and so lovable,
Oh, my Papa, he always understood.
Oh, my Papa, so funny, so adorable,
Always the clown so funny in his way.
Oh, my Papa, to me he was so wonderful,
Deep in my heart I miss him so today.
Gone are the days when he could take me on his knee
And with a smile he’d change my tears to laughter.
Oh, my Papa, to me he was so wonderful,
Oh, my Papa, to me he was so good.
… to the decidedly UN-crooning Bill Haley, jamming on his guitar with his Comets, driving many Papa’s around the country crazy a year later with his 1954 Number One hit, Rock Around The Clock!
Trivia tidbit: “Oh! My Papa” was originally a song in German (“Oh, Mein Papa”) by a Swiss composer, written for a 1939 musical. In the musical its words are sung by a young woman remembering her dearly-departed father…who was a once-famous clown. And it was sung by Krusty the Clown on The Simpsons, in an episode titled “Like Father, Like Clown.” Nothing like obscure pop culture references!
Pop music was never the same after Haley’s Comets hit, of course. By 1956 the airwaves were dominated by the many hits of Elvis Presley.
Trivia Tidbit: I always was under the impression Elvis’s first TV appearance was on the Ed Sullivan show, in September, 1956. But Google has made it clear there were several appearances, on other shows, earlier that year. The most scandalous was the one you see in the pic above, when he sang Hound Dog on the June 5 episode of the Milton Berle show.
This was not Presley’s first television appearance, nor even his first appearance on Milton Berle. Between January and March 1956, Elvis made six appearances on Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey’s Stage Show, and on April 3, he appeared for the first time with Uncle Miltie. But every one of those appearances featured Elvis either in close-up singing a slow ballad, or full body but with his movements somewhat restricted by the acoustic guitar he was playing. It was on his second Milton Berle Show appearance that he put the guitar aside and America witnessed, for the very first time, the 21-year-old Elvis Presley from head to toe, gyrating his soon-to-be-famous (or infamous) pelvis. [Source]
As the 50s rolled on, lots of “novelty songs” sprang up that accompanied idiosyncratic dance crazes, such as the Twist.
By the early 1960s the Motown Sound often dominated the charts.
And then, in short order, along came the British Invasion with a new twist on rock, with groups like the Beatles, Herman’s Hermits, the Rolling Stones, and the Dave Clark Five.
And that slid on into a brief period of Psychedelia with groups like the 13th Floor Elevators. (Yes, I had this 1966 album.)
And Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, with hits like Who Are the Brain Police and Return of the Son of Monster Magnet. (Yes, I had this 1966 album too.)
I suppose most folks, these days, don’t know who Frank was, as he died clear back in 1993 and was never as famous as the Beatles or Elvis. My daughter Mona, in her forties, says most of her generation doesn’t remember Frank, but many know his daughter Moon Unit Zappa and his son Dweezil Zappa, who were minor celebrities in Mona’s youth.
Trivia tidbits: Moon Unit, now 48, appeared as a child actor on TV in CHiPs and The Facts of Life. As an adult actress she appeared in National Lampoon’s European Vacation and The Super Mario Bros. Super Show. Dweezil, now 46, is a rock guitarist, whose birth name was actually Donald Calvin Euclid Zappa. Moon Unit’s birth name was… Moon Unit.
Yes, the 1950s and 60s and early 70s were a busy and ever-changing period for music styles. Going, in barely a decade, from Eddie Fisher to Frank Zappa, was quite a wild ride! You can easily get a bit of a taste for the variety if you happen to have SiriusXM satellite radio in your vehicle. The first channels on the dial offer “nostalgia decade music” 24/7. Tune in to 5 for the 1950s, 6 for the 1960s, and 7 for the 1970s. I would suppose that most of the audience for each of these channels consists of people who were teens or young adults in each of the time periods, nostalgic for the music of their youth.
But tune in to channel 5 and you DON’T get Eddie Fisher (even though he was in the 1950s.) You get music from Bill Haley onward, through Chuck Berry, various teen idols like Paul Anka and Frankie Avalon, girl groups like the Shirelles and Martha and the Vandellas, novelty songs like “Charlie Brown” by the Coasters, and more.
Tune in to channel 6 and you DON’T get too much standard early rock and roll from the period…they mostly jump right into the British Invasion. Nor do you get much in the way of…strange stuff, like The Mothers of Invention. Just Top 40 pop.
And I noticed long ago that one of my two favorite types of music from MY teen years is almost never included. I was a big fan of instrumentals, rather than songs about teens disappointed in love. And back in the 1950s and 60s there were a LOT of instrumentals that made the top forty on the radio. Songs by drummer Sandy Nelson (Teen Beat), guitar bands like the Ventures (Walk, Don’t Run), big, soaring movie themes such as those by piano duo Ferrante and Teicher. Nope. None of this ever shows up on the Oldies stations on Sirius. And, in fact, over the decades before we got Satellite radio, even the local AM station oldies programs across the nation seldom if ever played the classic 50s/60s instrumentals.
But then there’s the other of my two favorite types of music, which also had its popular heyday in the late 1950s and early 60s. You hear it even less often than instrumentals. In fact, virtually never, unless you happen to see a “Pledge Break Special” on your local PBS TV station leading in to a Reunion show. That’s about the only place in the past fifty years where you can hear the classics of popular Folk Music.
The first time I was aware of modern folk music was in 1958 when I was 12. The Kingston Trio, a folk group mostly popular up until then with live concerts at venues such as nightclubs, colleges, and coffee houses, released a single 45 recording of a mournful ballad called “Tom Dooley.” Rather than the usual electric guitars and driving drums of rock and roll, the Trio was three guys with acoustic guitars and banjo and conga drum, and very pretty vocal harmonies. I was immediately sucked in to their sphere of influence, and ran out and bought their first album.
That album had been recorded in a studio, with no frills. It was “pretty music,” but I wasn’t totally hooked until I acquired their second album, which was recorded in a session in concert in front of a live audience at the San Francisco “Hungry i” night club later in 1958.
The lively, humorous banter between the singers, along with the spontaneous enthusiasm of the audience, convinced me that this was “real” music as opposed to the bubble-gum pop stuff lip-synched by teen idols on American Bandstand.
Many of the Kingston Trio albums and singles went on to earn them gold records. In the coming five years, their formula worked for many other up and coming folk soloists and groups. And many folk songs became “standards,” sung around the campfire at Boy and Girl Scout camps. AND…at Hootenannies. (As seen in this movie from 1963, Hootenanny Hoot.)
Hootenanny is a Scottish word meaning “celebration” and / or “party”.
With the Scots being one of the biggest groups of settlers in the Appalachian region of North America (bringing with them their whisky-making tradition and methods, leading to the area’s “moonshining” tradition) it is not surprising that hootenanny became an Appalachian colloquialism, although it became used in early 20th-century America as a placeholder name to refer to things whose names were forgotten or unknown. In this usage it was synonymous with thingamajig or whatchamacallit, as in: “Hand me that hootenanny.” Hootenanny was also an old country word for “party”. Nowadays the word most commonly refers to a folk music party with an open mic, at which different performers are welcome to get up and play in front of an audience.
According to Pete Seeger, in various interviews, he first heard the word hootenanny in Seattle, Washington in the late 1930s. It was used by Hugh DeLacy’s New Deal political club to describe their monthly music fund raisers. After some debate the club voted in the word hootenanny, which narrowly beat out the word wingding. Seeger, Woody Guthrie and other members of the Almanac Singers later used the word in New York City to describe their weekly rent parties, which featured many notable folksingers of the time. In a 1962 interview in Time, Joan Baez made the analogy that a hootenanny is to folk singing what a jam session is to jazz. [Source]
“A rent party (sometimes called a house party) is a social occasion where tenants hire a musician or band to play and pass the hat to raise money to pay their rent, originating in Harlem during the 1920s. The rent party played a major role in the development of jazz and blues music. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the term skiffle means “rent party”, indicating the informality of the occasion.” [Source]
Since much of the music played at hootenannies and skiffles were improvised jazz, blues, and folk music, the term skiffle came to mean a certain style of music in the 1950s particularly in England. The Beatles and the BeeGees both developed out of skiffle groups, the Quarrymen and the Rattlesnakes.
Skiffle, style of music played on rudimentary instruments, first popularized in the United States in the 1920s but revived by British musicians in the mid-1950s. The term was originally applied to music played by jug bands (in addition to jugs, these bands featured guitars, banjos, harmonicas, and kazoos), first in Louisville, Kentucky, as early as 1905 and then more prominently in Memphis, Tennessee, in the 1920s and ’30s.
In the Britain of the impoverished post-World War II years, young musicians were delighted to discover a style that could be played on a cheap guitar, a washboard scraped with thimbles, and a tea-chest bass (a broom handle and string attached to a wooden case used for exporting tea). Leadbelly and Woody Guthrie were the heroes of a movement that had one foot in the blues and the other in folk music. When singer-banjoist Lonnie Donegan stepped out of the rhythm section of Chris Barber’s Dixieland (traditional jazz) band to record a hopped-up version of Leadbelly’s “Rock Island Line” in 1954, he was unwittingly laying the foundation of the 1960s British music scene. Released as a single in 1956, “Rock Island Line” was purchased by millions, including John Lennon and Paul McCartney, who thereby received their first exposure to African-American popular music. Lennon and McCartney were among thousands of British boys who, inspired by Donegan, formed skiffle groups—in their case, the Quarrymen—as a first step on the road to rock and roll. [Source]
But back to the Hootenanny in America of the 1960s!
Across the country, all kinds of organizations sponsored local hootenannies, both indoors and outdoors. What they all had in common was live folk music performances by multiple singers and groups, that always included encouragement of audience participation—clapping along, singing along.
And record companies rushed to cash in on the craze by releasing stacks and stacks of records with the theme. I checked just now, and found over 1000 records with Hootenanny in the title! Some were intended primarily for listening, such as one that I owned from 1962 by the Highwaymen, which included their gold-record-awarded 1961 single, Michael Row the Boat Ashore.
There was even a Surfin’ Hootenanny one. You can hear snippets from it at the link below, including the title song.
The craze went around the world, including to East Berlin!
Disney even got in on the craze with a kiddie version called A Rootin’ Tootin” Hootenanny…that included Davy Crockett himself (Fess Parker) singing “The Devil Be Durned.”
All the records, and the enthusiasm for local hootenannies at colleges and elsewhere, became so popular that TV producers decided that they might be able to make a profit from promoting the craze. Thus was born the Hooteanny TV series of 1963 and 1964.
Hootenanny was an American musical variety television show broadcast on ABC from April 1963 to September 1964. The program was hosted by Jack Linkletter. It primarily featured pop-oriented folk music acts, including The Journeymen, The Limeliters, the Chad Mitchell Trio, The New Christy Minstrels, The Brothers Four, Ian & Sylvia, The Big 3, Hoyt Axton, Judy Collins, Johnny Cash, The Carter Family, Flatt & Scruggs and the Foggy Mountain Boys, The Tarriers, Bud & Travis, and the Smothers Brothers. [Source]
Here’s a taste of what you’d see on the show. This is the New Christy Minstrels, featuring Barry McGuire (shortly before he moved to a solo career and recorded his 1965 hit, Eve of Destruction.)
Obviously the enthusiasm and dynamism of the performers really energized and uplifted the audiences!
Yep—going to a hootenanny or listening to a hootenanny record or watching a hootenanny TV show or movie in the early 1960s was surely a refreshing, often inspirational experience!
But just recently I learned, via the Internet, of a darker side of the folk music scene that I had never heard of “back in the day.” Nope—I had never heard of…
I was used to heartwarming groups like the Chad Mitchell Trio, the Kingston Trio, and the Brothers Four.
I had never heard of Odis Cochran and the 3 Bigots.
But they existed, and there was an audience for them.
And while I was listening to Michael Row the Boat Ashore, Odis and the trio were singing their own boat song.
The founder of Hatenanny Records, George Lincoln Rockwell, also had a singing group.
George Lincoln Rockwell and the Coon Hunters added their own recordings to the growing repertoire of Hatennany music.
George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was the founder of the American Nazi Party. He was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis. [Source: all info below is from this source unless otherwise noted.]
After serving in the Navy in World War 2, he was called back to duty for the Korean War. By 1952 he was training US Marine Corps pilots in San Diego, California.
It was during his time in San Diego that Rockwell became a supporter of Adolf Hitler and Nazism. He was influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s stance against communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur’s candidacy for President of the United States. He adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur’s example. Rockwell attended a Gerald L. K. Smith rally in Los Angeles, and read Conde McGinley’s Common Sense, a political newspaper that introduced him to anti-semitism and Holocaust Denial. He then read Hitler’s National Socialist manifesto Mein Kampf and the Russian propaganda pamphlet Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Privately, he adopted their beliefs. He published an Animal Farm-type parody, The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens. This was Rockwell’s interpretation of Jewish power in the United States in the 20th century.
In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-Semitic and anti-Communist groups.
He was deployed to Iceland for a time, and then returned to the US.
After his move to Washington DC in 1955 he became more and more conservative until, in the words of his biographer, he was “on the farthest fringe of the right wing.” In July 1958, Rockwell demonstrated in front of the White House in an anti-war protest against President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s decision to send peace-keeping troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from a supporter; it contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made a shrine with Hitler’s photo in the center, three lighted candles in front. In his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a religious experience and swore allegiance to his leader, saluting “Heil Hitler!” Rockwell and a few supporters had uniforms. They armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and paraded about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, so that others could see the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving him his first publicity.
And this led directly to his start of the American Nazi Party.
In March 1959, Rockwell founded the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), a name selected to denote opposition to state ownership of property. In December, the name was changed to the American Nazi Party, and the headquarters relocated to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia.
In order to attract media attention, Rockwell held a rally April 3, 1960, on the National Mall of Washington, D.C., where Rockwell addressed the crowd with a two-hour long speech. The second rally was to be held at Union Square in New York City. Mayor Robert Wagner refused to grant him a permit to speak, and he appealed that decision to the New York Supreme Court. Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors gathered to oppose his appeal and, during a court recess, when Rockwell emerged into the court Rotunda he was surrounded by a crowd of television reporters. One of the reporters, Reese Schonfeld, asked Rockwell how he would treat Jews if he came to power in the United States. Rockwell replied he would treat Jews just as he treated any other American citizens. If they were loyal Americans, everything would be fine; if they were traitors, they would be executed.
When Schonfeld asked what percentage of Jews Rockwell perceived as traitors, Rockwell replied, “Ninety percent.” The Jewish war veterans and Holocaust survivors rioted and began beating Rockwell and the reporter with their umbrellas, and Rockwell was escorted out of the Courthouse Rotunda in the midst of a police convoy. Rockwell, with the aid of the ACLU, eventually won his permit, but it was long after the date of the planned event.
All of this was occurring during the early years of the rise of the popularity of the folk music movement. And just like the TV producers who came up with the Hootenanny show, Rockwell decided to jump on the bandwagon of promoting folk music to make some money. He just happened to tap into a different set of “folks” with a radically different message.
In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label, named Hatenanny Records. The name was based on the word “hootenanny”, a term given to folk music performances. The label released several 45 RPM singles of music with openly racist lyrics, and were sold mostly through mail order and at party rallies.
The musical style of these records was quite a bit different from the common folk style of groups that had their creative roots in the North, many of them in Greenwich Village in NY. The roots of the Hatenanny style were in the bayous of Louisiana and elsewhere in the deep South, and the style could perhaps be best described as Rockabilly/Cajun.
Sadly, these recordings, and many more like them, are still around, and still have an audience. Other singers and groups from that period made similar hate-filled, sarcastic records that have now been turned into MP3 files, pulled together in collections, along with the Hatenanny recordings, and made available on Youtube. Here’s a “playlist” from one of those Youtube channels.
Most of those recordings posted have “viewership” totals in the thousands or tens of thousands, but I spotted one the other day that had had 3 MILLION views. And it’s not just nostalgic oldsters who are listening to the racist music of their youth. Many who leave enthusiastic comments about the videos appear to be teens or young adults honing their skills of hateful rhetoric. I suppose somewhere below one or more of these recordings there may even be leftover White Power comments from the young man who killed all those people in the church in Charleston in 2015.
Yes, for the aficionados of Hatenanny music, the words to the old Woody Guthrie song so popular at Hootenanies even to this day, must be changed. Because it is their firm conviction that “This Land” was NOT made for “you and me” if any of those “you’s” include blacks or Latinos or other minorities. Including Jews and Roman Catholics.
From California to the New York Island,
This Land was ONLY made…for people of White Northern European ancestry.
But back to the 60s and Heil Hitler Rockwell…
George Lincoln was not satisfied with just selling his Hatenanny records by mail order and at meetings of supporters. He wanted to get his message to the mainstream world. So he didn’t just tap into the Hootenanny craze. He also tapped in to the Love Bus craze. You remember… those VW buses with all the bright flowers and such painted on them, usually with the words Peace and Love intertwined among the colorful decorations.
There was even a vintage bus like that in the first Disney Cars movie, named Fillmore and voiced by George Carlin.
In the summer of 1961, during the Civil Rights movement, a number of Northerners got together, many of them young college students, to organize what they called “Freedom Rides.” The plan was to challenge the Jim Crow policies of the South regarding segregated seating on interstate buses and segregated waiting rooms at Greyhound stations throughout the South. The Freedom Riders would board a bus in a Northern city and plan to ride all the way into the Deep South. Whites and blacks would sit together on the bus, and each would attempt to “integrate” the segregated waiting rooms along the way, blacks going into the white rooms, whites going into “colored” rooms.
Rockwell decided to challenge the message of the Freedom Riders with his own message… painted on his very own “Hate Bus.”
When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the Deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with white supremacist slogans, dubbing it the “Hate Bus” and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies.
These pictures of the bus were taken by a LIFE magazine reporter.
Rockwell personally drove it with a band of party members around the deep south, organising rallies and speaking at Ku Klux Klan meets. These photographs were taken on May 23rd , three days after the Freedom Riders were infamously assaulted at the Greyhound Station in Montgomery. [Source]
The Montgomery assault was only the latest in a number of terrorist actions against the Freedom Riders as they had traveled down from the north.
The Birmingham, Alabama, Police Commissioner, Bull Connor, together with Police Sergeant Tom Cook (an avid Ku Klux Klan supporter), organized violence against the Freedom Riders with local Ku Klux Klan chapters. The pair made plans to bring the Ride to an end in Alabama. They assured Gary Thomas Rowe, an FBI informer and member of Eastview Klavern #13 (the most violent Klan group in Alabama), that the mob would have fifteen minutes to attack the Freedom Riders without any arrests being made. The plan was to allow an initial assault in Anniston with a final assault taking place in Birmingham.
On May 14, Mother’s Day, in Anniston, a mob of Ku Klux Klansmen, some still in church attire, attacked the first of the two buses (the Greyhound). The driver tried to leave the station, but was blocked until KKK members slashed its tires. The mob forced the crippled bus to stop several miles outside of town and then firebombed it. As the bus burned, the mob held the doors shut, intending to burn the riders to death. Sources disagree, but either an exploding fuel tank or an undercover state investigator brandishing a revolver caused the mob to retreat, and the riders escaped the bus. The mob beat the riders after they escaped the bus. Only warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched.
… When the Trailways bus reached Anniston and pulled in at the terminal an hour after the Greyhound bus was burned, it was boarded by eight Klansmen. They beat the Freedom Riders and left them semi-conscious in the back of the bus.
When the bus arrived in Birmingham, it was attacked by a mob of KKK members aided and abetted by police under the orders of Commissioner Bull Connor. As the riders exited the bus, they were beaten by the mob with baseball bats, iron pipes and bicycle chains. Among the attacking Klansmen was Gary Thomas Rowe, an FBI informant. White Freedom Riders were singled out for especially frenzied beatings; James Peck required more than 50 stitches to the wounds in his head. Peck was taken to Carraway Methodist Medical Center, which refused to treat him; he was later treated at Jefferson Hillman Hospital. [Source]
After the Birmingham beatings, the bloodied and battered riders concluded that they had sufficiently called attention to the civil rights cause, and decided to fly on from Birmingham to a rally in New Orleans. But a group of young college students from Nashville decided to “finish the ride” to Montgomery, lest their opponents thought they had “won,” and took the place of the first riders, boarding a bus in Birmingham.
On the morning of May 20, the Freedom Ride resumed, with the bus carrying the riders traveling toward Montgomery at 90 miles an hour, protected by a contingent of the Alabama State Highway Patrol.
The Highway Patrol abandoned the bus and riders at the Montgomery city limits. At the bus station on South Court Street, a white mob awaited. They beat the Freedom Riders with baseball bats and iron pipes. The local police allowed the beatings to go on uninterrupted. Again, white Freedom Riders were singled out for particularly brutal beatings. Reporters and news photographers were attacked first and their cameras destroyed, but one reporter took a photo later of Jim Zwerg in the hospital, showing how he was beaten and bruised. Seigenthaler, a Justice Department official, was beaten and left unconscious lying in the street. Ambulances refused to take the wounded to the hospital. Local blacks rescued them, and a number of the Freedom Riders were hospitalized. [Source]
The Hate Bus pictures above were taken in Fairview, Alabama, just 150 miles north of Montgomery, perhaps while young Zwerg, shown below, was still hospitalized.
The Hate Bus came to an ignominious end some time after these events…it was repossessed after a loan default.
And Rockwell himself came to an ignominious end also, on August 25, 1967. He was assassinated by a sniper on a nearby rooftop, after doing his laundry at the Econowash Laundromat in Arlington VA and getting in his car.
A half hour later, at a bus stop about a half-mile away, John Patler, a former member of Rockwell’s group, was arrested as the suspected murderer by a passing patrolman familiar with the Arlington Nazis. Later that day, after hearing of his son’s death, Rockwell’s 78-year-old father was curt: “I am not surprised at all. I’ve expected it for quite some time.” Patler was later convicted of the murder, and served eight years in prison. [ibid]
But even though Rockwell died so long ago, and his Hatenanny records should have died with him, they didn’t. Nor did his influence.
Those records have found new life to “inspire” a new generation and feed their hate, through the magic of the Internet.
And Rockwell himself? His influence lives on after all these years. Even down to the current Presidential campaign!
Given the epithet of the “American Hitler” by the BBC, Rockwell was a source of inspiration for White Nationalist politician David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell’s assassination, he reportedly said “The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed.” [Source]
Yes, David Duke, much in the news lately, was influenced greatly by George Lincoln Rockwell back in the day. And now Mr. Duke has endorsed a new Great American Hero for his followers.
David Duke, a white nationalist and former Klu Klux Klan grand wizard, told his audience Wednesday that voting for anyone besides Donald Trump “is really treason to your heritage.” [The term “heritage” in Duke-Speak is a code-word for “your identity as a White person, descended from the superior race—the Northern European Aryans.”]
“Voting for these people, voting against Donald Trump at this point, is really treason to your heritage,” Duke said on the David Duke Radio Program.
…“And I am telling you that it is your job now to get active. Get off your duff. Get off your rear end that’s getting fatter and fatter for many of you everyday on your chairs. When this show’s over, go out, call the Republican Party, but call Donald Trump’s headquarters, volunteer,” he said. “They’re screaming for volunteers. Go in there, you’re gonna meet people who are going to have the same kind of mind-set that you have.”
The question actually isn’t so much whether or not Mr. Trump adequately “disavows” Mr. Duke’s endorsement. (Which, after some procrastination, he grudgingly did.)
The real question is…just what part of the mindset of the typical Trump supporter does Mr. Duke think is so close to that of his own supporters??
And on what evidence has he decided that this is so?
As the classic Hootenanny folk song by Bob Dylan put it…
The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind.
The answer is blowin’ in the wind.